Swarms of small, inexpensive robots are a compelling research area in robotics. With a swarm, you can often accomplish tasks that would be impractical (or impossible) for larger robots to do, in a way that’s much more resilient and cost effective than larger robots could ever be.
The tricky thing is getting a swarm of robots to work together to do what you want them to do, especially if what you want them to do is a task that’s complicated or highly structured. It’s not too bad if you have some kind of controller that can see all the robots at once and tell them where to go, but that’s a luxury that you’re not likely to find outside of a robotics lab.
Researchers at Northwestern University, in Evanston, have been working on a way to provide decentralized control for a swarm of 100 identically programmed small robots, which allows them to collectively work out a way to transition from one shape to another without running into each other even a little bit.